DevOps engineers are in high demand at firms such as Amazon, Facebook, and Google. However, you need to pass your interview to secure a job as a DevOps expert. We have compiled the top 25 interview questions likely to be asked in the interview along with their sample answers to help you prepare to get into the field of DevOps.
1. Describe Your Experience Relating To The Role You Have Applied
I have been working as a DevOps engineer for eight years now. During this time, I have gained experience in designing, building, and setting up tools for the constant building, deployment, integration, and release of the software. Thus, I can design and implement automated tools that support software development projects. I have also been guiding teams in building, designing, deploying, and testing changes to existing software as well as identifying manual processes that can be automated. Thus, I can maintain and improve your company’s cloud infrastructure. I have also performed many practical projects in the course of my degree course that prepared me to become competent in this field. I am also a fast learner and I will learn any other duty that I will be expected to perform. Given a chance, I will use my experience to make a success in this role.
2. What Are Some Important Features Of Memcached?
Important features of Memcached are:
Callbacks- this is a feature that simplifies the code CAS Token- this is a feature attached to an object that is retrieved from a cache. A developer can save the updated object in the CAS Token.
In binary- this feature enabled igbinary option as opposed to the previously used feature that would only perform serialization of the value. Binary protocol- this feature enables a developer to use binary protocol rather than ASCII GetDelayed – this feature helps to reduce delay time including the time spent waiting for results to return from a server.
3. How Can You Reduce The Memcached Server Outages?
There are several ways that a user can employ to minimize the Memcached server outages. Among them include:
- Bringing a Memcached instance on a new machine by using the IP address of the lost machine.
- Using a code to help me modify the Memcached server list without much work.
- When a single instances fall, other instances go down too. This makes the database server experience a heavy load. This takes place especially when a client is making a request. You can avoid this by ensuring that your code is written to reduce cache stampedes. This will result in minimal effect.
- You can also set the timeout value for a Memcached server outage. This allows a client to keep sending a request when a Memcached server goes down until when he or she reaches the time-out limit.
4. Why Do You Think That You Are The Most Suitable Candidate For This Role?
I hold a bachelor’s degree in software engineering. I am familiar with using an array while automating tools and I am knowledgeable about software security methods. I have five- years’ experience in using a wide range of coding languages such as JSON, Ajax, HTML, and Python JQuery. Thus, I can perform well in all phases of software development from conception to extinction. Besides, I am a curious, creative, and discerning envelop pusher with solid decision-making and collaborative abilities. Additionally, I have the ability to receive and make use of constructive criticism to better myself. I believe that if given a chance, my strong qualities will help me perform well in this role.
5. What Strategies Will You Employ To Ensure That You Succeed In This Role?
As an insightful and decisive DevOps engineer, I will ensure that I have participated in all stages of every company’s product’s life span. I will also keep up with technological advancements to ensure that our products are efficient. I will adopt a strategy of keeping track of user reviews to improve marketability. Additionally, I will make sure that all products are safe to be used by customers as I ensure to demonstrate good leadership skills to all our stakeholders.
6. What Is DevOps?
DevOps is a combination of practices involved in software development and deployment team. DevOps focuses on bringing out software products more rapidly as well as lowering the rate of its failure. Thus, it increases the company’s ability to deliver services, and applications, and is closer to business objectives.
7. What Are The Key Components Of DevOps?
There are several components of DevOps. However, I find the following five as the key components:
- Continuous development
Continuous development comprises planning and coding the software. During this phase, the whole development process is broken down into smaller cycles to help the DevOps team to speed up the entire development cycle.
- Continuous integration
Continuous integration involves various steps related to the implementation of the test process. Most changes take place during this phase.
- Continuous testing
In this stage, the code developed is tested for any present errors and bugs. During this phase, quality analysis is performed to check the usability of the built software.
- Continuous deployment
Continuous deployment confirms that the product is hassle-free for deployment without affecting the performance of the application.
- Continuous Monitoring
Continuous monitoring can be described as an operational phase where the performance of the application is monitored to determine the entire efficacy of the product output.
8. Highlight Some Of The Tools Used In DevOps
Some of the tools used in DevOps include:
Git- this is a distributed version control tool for managing source code
Maven- This is an automation tool that helps teams in building and managing software projects quickly.
Selenium- This is an open-source automation tool for testing web applications including functional and regression testing.
Jenkins- this is an open-source continuous integration tool used to automate the continuous development, testing as well as deployment of newly developed codes.
Docker- This is a containerization technology that packages applications and their dependencies together in form of a Docker container to enable the application to work seamlessly in any kind of environment.
Ansible- This is a configuration management tool that allows automatic deployment of applications in a variety of environments.
Nagios- This is an open-source tool for monitoring servers, networks, systems, and storage infrastructure.
9. Why Is Devops Important?
DevOps has become popular for helping businesses to create and enhance products at a faster pace compared to traditional software development methods. DevOps enables faster innovations, has shorter development cycles, and reduces deployment failures. DevOps provides a more stable operating setting as well as increased efficiencies. It also has more improved communication and collaboration as compared to traditional methods. It is also preferred for its ability to reduce costs and IT headcount.
10. What Are Some Of The Cloud Platforms Used For DevOps Implementation
The most popular cloud platform used for DevOps implementation are :
Google cloud- this is a computing platform that contains a wide range of hosted services for storage, computing, as well as application development that run on google.
Amazon Web Services- It’s one of the broadly adopted cloud platforms since it helps the users lower costs and enables faster innovations.
Microsoft Azure-This is the second –most popular public cloud that caters to large enterprise users.
11. Kindly Mention Some Best Practices Which Should Be Followed For DevOps Success.
To be effective in this field, it is essential to follow the following best practices:
- Have in mind that the number of errors being reported by users can greatly affect the quality of software application
- Keep tracking any defect in the various stages of software development
- Break the entire development cycle into small cycles to enhance the speedy delivery of the product
- Always measure the actual time it takes to recover in the event of a failure in the production setting
12. What Is The Difference Between Automation And Continuous Testing?
Continuous testing involves the running of automated tests in the software delivery pipeline offering real-time feedback about business risks available in the recent release. It helps the developer to avoid rerunning all the tests after every update as well as project re-building. On the other hand, automation testing refers to the process of manual testing a system or an application. In automation testing, the developer uses independent testing tools that enable him or her to create test scripts that run well without requiring human interaction.
13. Highlight The Importance Of Automation Testing In DevOps
Some of the benefits of automation testing in DevOps include:
- It allows parallel execution
- It enables the testing of huge test matrices
- It helps to save time and money
- It supports the execution of repeated test tasks
- Improve accuracy since there are reduced human errors
- Unattended execution is done easily
14. Explain The Key Elements Of Continuous Testing Tools In DevOps
The key elements of continuous testing tools in DevOps are:
Risk Assessment- this is where the risk mitigation duties, quality evaluation, technical debt, and test coverage optimization are covered to confirm that the application can move to the next phase. Test optimization-.It ensures that the tests done produce actionable information and reliable results. Aspects such as test maintenance, test optimization management, and test data management are considered here.
Advanced analysis-The element employs automation in scope assessment, changes effect analysis, as well as static code analysis. Policy analysis- this ensures that the changes taking place are in line with the organizational needs. Service Virtualization – Ensures that the right testing scenarios are easily accessed. Requirements Traceability – It ensures that there is no required reworking and real-time criteria are met.
15. Define Jenkinsfile As Used In DevOps
Jenkinsfile is a text file of the Jenkins pipeline that is checked into the source control repository. Jenkinfile allows an audit trail for the pipeline and also permits code iteration and review on the pipeline. However, there is one source of fact for the pipeline that a user can view and edit.
16. What Would You Check If A Linux-Build-Server Suddenly Starts Getting Slow
If I realize that a Linux- build server is suddenly getting slow, I would check the following:
I will perform dependent Services troubleshooting to examine issues such as network, SMTP server response time issues, Firewall, and antivirus issues. I will also run a System Level troubleshooting to check for system performance issues, application log file, application sever log file, tomcat lo, WebLogic logs, web server log, and memory leak of the application.
Finally, I would run application-level troubleshooting to check RAM-related issues, disc space issues, and Disk I/O read-write issues.
17. Differentiate Between Agile And DevOps
Agile focuses on development while DevOps focuses on both operations and development. Agile manages complex projects while DevOps handles end-to-end engineering processes. Additionally, Agile focuses on software development while DevOps focus on faster deliveries and end-to-end business solutions. Agile depends on self-feedback while DevOps depends on feedback from customers. Moreover, DevOps supports defect detention and a shorter release cycle. On the other hand, Agile supports Agile release cycles. DevOps uses tools such as AWS, Chef, and Puppet while Agile uses tools such as JIRA, Bugzilla, and Kanboard.
18. Define What Is A Private Cloud
There are several types including public, private, and virtual private clouds. A private cloud is a single-tenant cloud service that is fully offered to a single organization. It is sometimes extended to a virtual private cloud(VPC). This means that no one else can share the VPC with the VPC user.
19. What Are The Benefits Of Using A Vpc Over A Private Cloud?
Easy hybrid cloud deployment- it’s quite easy to connect a virtual private cloud to on-premises infrastructure or a public cloud.
Scalability- it allows the user to add other computing resources on demand. Better performance- cloud-hosted application and website performance is better compared to those hosted on other on-premises servers. Better security- VPC provides more updating and maintaining resources
20. How Can You Build A Hybrid Cloud?
There are many ways of building a hybrid cloud. However, I prefer creating a VPN tunnel between the cloud VPC and the on-premise network.
21. Kindly Take Us Through How “Infrastructure Code” Is Processed Or Executed in AWS
- The infrastructure code should be in simple JSON format
- This JSON code must be arranged into templates
- The templates are deployed on AWS and they are then managed as stacks
- Finally, the cloud formation service does the building, deleting, and updating among other operations in the stack
22. Define The Term Regex As Used In DevOps
Regex is an operational pattern that was developed to help users implement search functions in a database system. It matches regular expressions in a wide range of Meta characters, hence giving the user more control over the database when conducting their pattern-matching tasks.
23. Highlight The Difference Between Continuous Deployment And Continuous Delivery
Continuous delivery guarantees that code is safely deployed to production while continuous deployment ensures that every modification that goes through the automated tests is automatically deployed to production. Continuous delivery guarantees that business services and applications function as required while continuous deployment ensures that software development including the release process quick. Continuous delivery ensures that every modification is delivered to a production-like environment employing rigorous automated testing. On the other hand, in continuous deployment, explicit approval is absent from a developer and needs a created culture of monitoring.
24. What Does CBD Mean In DevOps? What Are Its Benefits
Component-based development (CBD) is a model for building applications by utilizing reusable software components. CBD transfers the emphasis from software programming to software system composition. Component-based development strategies are procedures for creating software systems by selecting optimal off-the-shelf components and combining them using a well-defined software architecture. CBD attempts to improve quality and productivity by systematically reusing coarse-grained components. One of the benefits of CBD is saving time and money when it comes to building complex and large systems. This is because this approach uses off-the-shelf components, thus reducing software development resources. Another advantage is that CBD enhances software quality. It also makes it easy to detect faults within the system.
25. What Are The Benefits Of Using Ansible Tool?
The benefits of using this tool are:
- It is open-source, meaning that there are no acquisition costs
- Setting up the tool is quite simple and using it is easy as well. No special coding skills are needed.
- Ansible is an agentless tool. Using it doesn’t require the installation of any other firewall or software ports on a client system that one needs to automate
· It is flexible in the sense that one can customize it according to their needs
These questions and answers will help you to adequately prepare for your upcoming DevOps interview. The more areas and aspects of DevOps you familiarize yourself with before the interview, the better. Practice will boost your confidence during the interview. Remember, most hiring manager prefers candidate that can demonstrate confidence. Good luck!